Turabian Style: In-Text (Parenthetical) Citations & Reference List

The Turabian citation style offers two different documentation systems. Writers in the natural, physical, and social sciences commonly employ a system that links in-text author and date information with a reference list:

(IT) In-Text Author & Date Information Parentheses should enclose in-text references. When page numbers are required, they should be separated by a comma.

 (R) Reference List.  The first line should begin flush with the left margin, with following lines in the entry indented five spaces.

In-Text (Parenthetical) & Reference List: Sample Citations

The examples cited below illustrate common material formats. For additional examples or more information, please see A Manuel for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007– available in the Library Reference Room (Ref LB2369.T8)


One author

IT:  (Doniger 1999, 65)

R:Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Two authors

IT: (Cowlishaw and Dunbar 2000, 104–7)R:Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. 2000. Primate conservation biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Four or more authors

IT:(Laumann et al. 1994, 262)R:Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. 1994. The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author

IT:(Lattimore 1951, 91–92)R:Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author

IT:(Bonnefoy 1995, 22)R:Bonnefoy, Yves. 1995. New and selected poems. Ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter or other part of a book

IT:(Wiese 2006, 101–2)R:Wiese, Andrew. 2006. “The house I live in”: Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)

IT:(Cicero 1986, 35)R:Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. Handbook on canvassing for the consulship. In Rome: Late republic and principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 ofUniversity of Chicago readings in western civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a bookP:

(Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)R:Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Book published electronically

IT:(Kurland and Lerner 1987)R:Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (accessed June 27, 2006).

Journal article

Article in a print journal

IT:(Smith 1998, 639)R:Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639–40.

Article in an online journal

IT:(Hlatky et al. 2002)R:Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality-of-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), January 7, 2004).

Popular magazine article

IT:(Martin 2002, 84)R:Martin, Steve. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. New Yorker, May 6.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in aNew York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

IT:(Niederkorn 2002)R:Niederkorn, William S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition.

Book review

IT:(Gorman 2002, 16)R:Gorman, James. 2002. Endangered species. Review of The last American man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2.

Thesis or dissertation

IT:(Amundin 1991, 22–29, 35)R:Amundin, M. 1991. Click repetition rate patterns in communicative sounds from the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. PhD diss., Stockholm University.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

IT:(Doyle 2002)R:Doyle, Brian. 2002. Howling like dogs: Metaphorical language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, June 19–22, in Berlin, Germany.

Web site

Web sites may be cited in running text (“On its Web site, the Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees states . . .”) instead of in a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

IT:(Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees)R:Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library. (accessed June 1, 2005).

Weblog entry or comment

Weblog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to the Becker-Posner Blog on March 6, 2006, Peter Pearson noted . . .”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

IT:(Peter Pearson, The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006)R:Becker-Posner blog, The. (accessed March 28, 2006).

E-mail message

E-mail messages may be cited in running text (“In an e-mail message to the author on October 31, 2005, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in a note or a parenthetical citation, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography or reference list. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

N: 2. John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2005.

Item in online database

Journal articles published in online databases should be cited as shown above, under “Article in an online journal.”

IT:(Pliny the Elder, Perseus Digital Library)R:Perseus Digital Library. (accessed November 17, 2005).

Examples provided by the “Turabian Citation Guide.” The University of Chicago Press | Home . (accessed July 19, 2012).

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